Inhibiting toll-like receptors: a comprehensive review of emerging strategies and potential therapeutic implications

  • Shahana Wahid Department of Pharmacy, Benazir Bhutto Shaheed University, Lyari, Karachi, Pakistan
  • Sana Ali Department of Pharmacy, Benazir Bhutto Shaheed University, Lyari, Karachi, Pakistan
  • Shumaila Qadir Department of Pharmacy, Benazir Bhutto Shaheed University, Lyari, Karachi, Pakistan
  • Darakhshan Amin Department of Pharmacy, Benazir Bhutto Shaheed University, Lyari, Karachi, Pakistan
  • Saima Jameel Department of Pharmacy, Benazir Bhutto Shaheed University, Lyari, Karachi, Pakistan
  • Rabia Asif Department of Pharmacy, Suleman Roshan Medical College Tandoadam, Pakistan
  • Nausheen Hameed Siddiqui Department of Pharmacy, Benazir Bhutto Shaheed University, Lyari, Karachi, Pakistan
Keywords: Toll receptors, signaling pathways, TLR4 receptors antagonist, Natural metabolites

Abstract

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate the inflammatory response by synthesizing and activating various pro-inflammatory mediators through innate immunity. Irrationally TLRs over activation disrupt homeostasis that in turn overproduces cytotoxic cytokines. All such events subsequently enhance the progression of numerous immune system-related disorders. For instance, the overexpression of TLRs is now considered the basis of sepsis, endotoxemia, rheumatoid arthritis, acute kidney injury, acute lung injury, systemic lupus erythematosis, and cardiovascular diseases. The normal physiological pathways of TLRs, as well as some TLR4 inhibitors, are discussed in this review. These drug mixtures range from ordinary small molecular compounds to soothing biologics and nano devices. Specifically, these are either synthesized or obtained from natural resources. Natural TLR4 antagonism has wide therapeutic applications and various synthetic and natural metabolites are under excessively testing involving drug discovery. Nanoparticles are arising as a drug delivery system for powerful TLRs inhibitors of their notable properties for the improvement in bioavailability, supported course, and favored pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles. All things considered, these discoveries and continual investigations of TLRs antagonism might change the pharmacological management of various diseases

Published
2024-01-29
How to Cite
Wahid, S., Ali, S., Qadir, S., Amin, D., Jameel, S., Asif, R., & Siddiqui, N. (2024). Inhibiting toll-like receptors: a comprehensive review of emerging strategies and potential therapeutic implications. International Journal of Pathology, 21(4), 156-167. Retrieved from https://jpathology.com/index.php/OJS/article/view/879