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Professor, Consultant Pathologist, American Board Certified Pathologist, Fellow College of American Pathologists. Areas of interest Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology, Cytology, Cancer, Ethics, Islam, Humanity


Nadeem Ikram; Khalid Hassanī€Ē; Samina Tufail
Department of Pathology, DHQ Hospital, Rawalpindi.
* Department of Pathology, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad.
The term cytokines refers to a bioactive cell
secretion. Cytokines are a family of glycosylated or
non- glycosylated polypeptides and proteins, secreted
by cells in response to a stimulus which modulates the
behavior of target cells.1 Their secretion is typically
transient. The cytokine net work is a complex and
dynamic system, involved in numerous biological
responses in the human body.2 Although an
understanding of cytokine biology may appear
daunting, it has many worthwhile utilities. Role of
cytokines in disease pathogenesis unfolds the disease
course in an explicit way. It also highlights the impact
of molecular pathology on the practice of medicine
and it has many practical therapeutic applications.
Understanding cytokines physiology is an important
step in optimizing their therapeutic use and furthering
our knowledge of the biogenesis of different disorders.
By the help of cytokines it is likely that we will be able
to control the harmful effect of inflammation and of
tissue- damaging immune reactions. Moreover
commercially available recombinant cytokines can be
administered to treat or to enhance immunity against
cancer or microbiological infection.3 A few cytokines
are commercially available and some are under
evaluation. There is a likelihood that the beneficial
effects of the cytokines translated in terms of better
clinical outcomes, reduction in number of blood
products transfusion, lesser antibiotics requirements,
shorter length of hospitalization and easy
chemotherapy dose escalation may outweigh the price
burden of these products


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