Types and Frequencies of Pathologies in Endometrial Curettings of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

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Professor, Consultant Pathologist, American Board Certified Pathologist, Fellow College of American Pathologists. Areas of interest Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology, Cytology, Cancer, Ethics, Islam, Humanity

Types and Frequencies of Pathologies in Endometrial Curettings of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

Ayesha Sarwar and Anwar ul Haque
Department of Pathology, MCH Centre Unit I, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad.

Introduction: Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the most frequently encountered and perplexing condition in adult
women. Its causes include a wide spectrum of diseases. An important diagnostic method is endometrial curettage. It
provides information regarding specific and nonspecific infections and malignancy. Histological evaluation can also
highlight the incidental findings of organic causes as polyps or malignancy in cases in which no organic cause of bleeding
was initially suspected.
Objective: The objectives of the study were to determine the types and frequencies of pathologies in endometrial curettings
of abnormal uterine bleeding & compare different endometrial pathologies in patient groups made according to age,
presenting complaints and parity.
Study Design: It was a comparative study.
Setting: Histopathology department, Pakistan institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad.
Material and Methods: H&E slides of endometrial curretings of 25 patients were evaluated. Diagnosis was made
by correlating the morphological findings with the clinical history over a period of one year i-e 14th Oct. 2004 to 14th
Oct. 2005
Results: The most common complaint was polymennorhagia 36% (18/50) followed by mennorhagia 30% (15/50). There
were two cases of oligomennorhoea (2%) and five cases of post menopausal bleeding (10%). Frequencies of
endometrial pathologies was Estrogen dominanance pattern 42% (21), Anovulatory endometrium and chronic
endometritis 24% (12) each, atrophic endometrium and endometrial carcinoma 2% (1) each and 6% (3) cases of pill effect
endometrium.
Conclusion: Our study on endometrial curettings in abnormal uterine bleeding revealed clustering of cases around
perimenopausal age. There was relative estrogen excess termed as Estrogen Dominance Pattern (EDP) over
Progesterone leading to specific changes such as clusters of thickened blood vessels, spindly stroma, weak or absent
secretory changes in the glands and stroma with or without polyp formation. We also noted frequent anovulatory pattern
in the old age.
Key words: Frequency, Endometrial curettings, Abnormal uterine bleeding.

         

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