Immunophenotypes in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; association with Demographic Profile and Clinical Presentation

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Professor, Consultant Pathologist, American Board Certified Pathologist, Fellow College of American Pathologists. Areas of interest Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology, Cytology, Cancer, Ethics, Islam, Humanity

Immunophenotypes in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; association with Demographic Profile and Clinical Presentation

Samina Naeem
Department of Pathology, King Edward Medical University, Lahore

Abstract

Objective: This study was carried out to determine the frequency of B lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and T lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) patients in our population and to observe their association with the demographic profile and clinical features at presentation.
Study Design: Non randomized prospective study.
Place and duration of study: King Edward Medical University, Lahore and Hameed Latif Hospital, Lahore; from Feburary 2013 to March 2014.
Methodology: Fifty newly diagnosed and untreated patients of ALL were selected from Mayo Hospital and Hameed Latif Hospital. They included both genders and all age groups. Relevant history and findings of physical examination were recorded.
Immunophenotyping was done on bone marrow samples by 5 colour flowcytometery on Beck Man Coulter Navious flowcytometer. An acute leukemia panel of 23 antibodies was used. The data was entered and analyzed in SPSS version 22.
Results: Of the 50 ALL patients 36(72%) were B-ALL and 14(28%) T-ALL. There were 18(36%) children and 32(64%) adults. T-ALL included 4(22%) of the childhood and 10(31%) of the adult cases. Male: Female ratio was 4:1 in total patients, 2:1 in children and 7:1 in adults. A significant preponderance of T-ALL was seen in the age cohort of 15 to 25 years. No association was observed between ALL immunophenotypes and gender or the presenting clinical features.
Conclusion: The frequency of T-ALL is higher and the male predominance is greater in childhood as well as adult ALL in our population compared to the Western literature. Although T-ALL is significantly higher in the adolescents and young adults, it is not associated with male gender or organomegaly.
Key words: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). B lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). T lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Flowcytometry. Immunophenotypes.

         

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