Category Archives: Archive

Markers of Viral Infection in Haemophiliacs

Maryam R Tarar, Naumaan A Malik, A S Chughtai
Lahore Haemophilia Center, 8 Jail Road, Main Gulberg, Lahore.
Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg), anti-HCV IgG and anti-HIV IgG was determined in 100 people with Haemophilia (PWH), registered with Haemophilia Patient Welfare Society (HPWS), Lahore Zone, Pakistan. The study shows that none of the PWH were infected with HIV whereas a modest 4% were positive for HbsAg. However, there was a high level of anti-HCV seropositivity (56%) in our PWH, including many patients in younger age groups. When compared with figures from PWH in other regions of Asia like 23% in Western India, 33% in Sri Lanka and 15% of those in Iran, this figure is one of the highest. This rate is a reflection of the same rising trend in our population that is now exceeding 10%. The practice of unscreened blood/blood-products transfusions in the backdrop of high prevalence of HCV in our population is responsible for high figures seen in PWH. The need is to increase awareness level amongst the patients, health care worker and policy makers about these transfusion associated viral infections in a group of patients who already had a hereditary disorder of severe nature.
Keywords: People with haemophilia (PWH), Blood borne viruses, HBV, HCV, HIV.

Incidence and Intensity of Soil Transmitted Helminths in A Rural Area of Lahore

R Hafeez, Z Tahir, A S Chughtai
Chughtai Lab, 08-Jail Road, Main Gulberg, Lahore.
Geohelminths / Soil-Transmitted Helminths (STH) infection represents a major public health problem in poor and developing
countries. During the period April and May 2002, we received 85 stool samples to detect the presence of STH infection in young children. Stool samples were examined for helminth eggs by qualitative method (Kato-Katz technique) to determinethe prevalence and intensity of intestinal parasitic infection. The overall prevalence of STH infection detected was 44.7%.Ascaris lumbricoides (60.53%) was the commonest parasite isolated, followed by Trichuris trichura (42.10%). The highest incidence of infection was found in the 2 – 8 year age group. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of STH in children aged 1 – 15 years living in a rural area of Lahore, so as to provide data to plan helminthic control programmes

Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in Splenomegaly

Arshad Mumtaz and Anwar Ul Haque
Department of Pathology, National Institute of Health, Islamabad.
* Department of Pathology, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad.
A prospective study of Splenic Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology on 31 splenomegalic patients was carried out. Quite cellular
aspirates were obtained from all cases. The cases were divided into reactive hyperplasia, granulomatous inflammation,
parasitic infestation, extramedullary erythropoiesis, lipid storage disease, haemophagocytic syndrome and neoplastic
disorders. Splenic Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology was found quite useful in diagnosis of both neoplastic and nonneoplastic
diseases. In 42 % cases, it provided the first and the specific diagnosis, in 35% cases it confirmed the splenic
involvement in already diagnosed systemic disease and in the rest 23% cases it ruled out splenic involvement in the systemic
diseases. The splenic Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology is a safe, simple, quick, inexpensive and highly valuable diagnostic
procedure as a primary investigation in splenomegaly.
Key words: Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC), Splenic Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (sFNAC), Splenomegaly.

The Effects of Lindane on Rabbit Hemopoietic System: An Experimental Study

Lindane is a synthetic insecticidal agent used in agricultural as well as medical practice. In this experimental study, effects of
lindane were observed on bone marrow in rabbits. Ninety rabbits were divided in nine groups according to dose level. Low
peripheral blood counts and suppression of bone marrow were observed in six test animals. This suppression was related
neither to dose nor to duration of exposure to lindane.
Keywords: Lindane, Erythropoiesis, Myelopoiesisis, Megakaryocytes

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL) – An Overview

Nadeem Ikram; Khalid Hassan*; and Samina Tufail
Department of Pathology, District Headquarters Hospital, Rawalpindi.
* Department of Pathology, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad.
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL), a
haematological malignancy of old age, is viewed by
clinicians and investigators as an uninspiring disease
with an indolent course . But the last ten years have
witnessed renewed interest in its biology and
treatment.1 CLL is characterized by proliferation,
accumulation and sustained increase of
morphologically mature but functionally incompetent
lymphocytes. Peripheral lymphocytosis is
accompanied by an accumulation of similar cells in the
bone marrow, spleen, liver, lymph nodes and other
lymphoid organs. The cause of this disease is
unknown, although it appears likely that the genetic
factors contribute to its development. The majority of
cases involve B-lymphocytes and the disease is
thought to arise by clonal expansion of a rare CD 5
positive B cells. At the time of presentation the
patients may be completely free of symptoms,
ostensibly feeling quite well and having no
abnormality at physical examination; on the other
extreme, they may have profound weakness, night
sweats, fever, weight loss, large bulky and generalized
lymphadenopathy with enlarged spleen and liver.
The diagnosis of CLL does not imply the need