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About admin

Professor, Consultant Pathologist, American Board Certified Pathologist, Fellow College of American Pathologists. Areas of interest Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology, Cytology, Cancer, Ethics, Islam, Humanity

Comparison of Honey with Alcohol as a Fixative in Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology

Ruqqayya Ishaq, Henna Azmat, Maria Omair, Ahmareen Khalid Sheikh & Ashok Kumar Tanwani

Department of Pathology, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan


Abstract: Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is a useful diagnostic aid in benign and malignant lesions. The diagnostic accuracy of FNAC depends on the sampling technique, fixative used, quality of staining and of course the meticulosity of interpretation by the pathologist. The widely used fixative in this procedure is 95 % Alcohol which although readily available, has a number of limitations for use. It is expensive and hence subject to pilferage. Also, it is a volatile liquid with an irritant smell and is said to be carcinogenic. Recent attempts have been made to prove that honey is also a comparable fixative for cytological specimens. It is a natural organic product, odourless and not known to cause any disease. Secondly it is relatively cheaper and not prone to be mishandled, making it an efficient contender for use as a fixative. In this study, we analyzed and compared the efficacy of cytological smears fixed in 95% alcohol and 20% honey solution. The results of our study showed no statistical significant difference in the fixative properties of honey and alcohol. Our results, therefore, confirmed that honey can safely be used as an alternate to alcohol in cytology specimens

Megaloblastic Anemia in Early Infancy (A Case Report)

Dr. Sara Jamal, Dr. Amna Imtiaz and Dr.Lubna Naseem

Abstract: Congenital megaloblastic anemia is a rare hematological condition of early infancy.So far few cases of congenital megaloblastic anemia have been reported. Infants born to severely B12 deficient mothers develop megaloblastic anemia at 3 to 6 months of age since they are born with low stores of B12 and are then fed breast milk of low cobalamin content. Mothers of such infants are either vegetarians or have unrecognized maternal pernicious anemia. Megaloblastic anemia developing within few weeks of birth is due to congenital transcobalamin II deficiency or abnormality. Transcobalamin II is responsible for the transport of cobalamin from gut to body tissues. Megaloblastic Anemia can also occur due to functional defect in either mitochondrial methyl malonyl COA enzyme or its co-factor ado cobalamin

Peripheral Ameloblastoma of the Gingiva

Ghazal Zaffar* and Ahmareen Khalid*

Department of Pathology, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad


Abstract: Peripheral Ameloblastoma is a benign and rare odentogenic tumor with a slow growing clinical course. It is an asymptomatic lesion and grows as a swelling. We report a case of Peripheral ameloblastoma in the gingiva within the oral cavity which was removed and on histopathological evaluation revealed predominantly plexiform architectural pattern formed by epithelial cells with characteristic reverse polarity.

Keywords: Peripheral Ameloblastoma, Gingiva

Adult Burkitt Lymphoma: An Unusual Presentation

Shahzad Ali Jiskani, Asfa Zawar and Lubna Naseem

Department of Pathology, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad

Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University, Islamabad


Abstract: Burkitt lymphoma is a disease of young population; especially children. It rarely occurs and presented in elderly group. World Heal Organization (WHO) divided Burkitt lymphoma in endemic, sporadic and immunodeficiency – associated. The non – endemic variant occur in children with abdominal involvement. We report a sporadic case presented at the age of 61 years old male with irregular thickening or parietal peritoneum and omentum without involving any lymph nodes


March 21, 2017

Anwar Ul Haque

Azad Jammu & Kashmir Medical College, Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir

Quackery is an unscientific, unproven and un-established method of treatment and patient management. It may or may not have ulterior motives! If there are ulterior motives then it also constitutes a fraud! Apart from money loss, quackery may have serious health consequences including delay in institution of appropriate optimal patient management allowing relentless progress of disease, transforming a potentially curable ailment into an incurable one and complications attributable to effects of quack medicine and at times even sudden death! It’s not uncommon to see people losing their precious kidneys and dying due to some “Hakeemi”, homeopathic prescriptions and excessive use of pain killers. In one incidence lead was found in the powder given by a hakeem to a patient.

Better Public Sector Hospitals: Need of the Hour

Anwar Ul Haque

Azad Jammu & Kashmir Medical College, Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir

The public sector hospitals face many problems especially in the third world countries. Some of these problems directly relate to the prevailing systems of the Government and the society rather than to the hospitals per se. As institutions are made by men and not by cement and bricks, the performance of the institutions directly relate to the quality of the men.. The fundamental question is: whether country is producing quality men? If not then not only hospitals but all institutions will suffer. Quality of the men does not mean only knowledge or degree them posses but their integrity, faith, character, commitment, courage, strength, spirit, zeal, hard work and right temperament. It’s referred to the final Prophet Muhammad p.b.u.h that  near the last days there will be less men than women. Some scholars have related this to manly characters & not to gender as just outlined.

A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial of Soy versus Estrogen in Alleviating Post-Menopausal Vasomotor Symptoms

Shafaq Hanif*,Mohsina Saeed Zia* and Mohsin Shakil**

* Department Gynaecology/Obstetrics, ** Department of Urology

Azad Jammu & Kashmir Medical College, Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir

Abstract :

Introduction: Estrogen therapy has long been prescribed to treat menopausal symptoms. It has been extensively studied, and it is the most consistently effective therapy for vasomotor symptoms. Soy has been investigated, mainly over the past 10 years, because of their potential effects on the health of postmenopausal women.

Objectives: To compare the efficacy of soy and estrogen in alleviating post-menopausal vasomotor symptom

Study Design: Randomized controlled trial.

Materials & Methods: A total of 122 post-menopausal women, 40 to 65 years of age were included. Patients on hormone replacement therapy, tamoxifen or receiving chemotherapy/radiation therapy or taking any dietary supplements were excluded. Then selected patients were placed randomly into Group A (estrogen) & Group B (soy), by using lottery method. Patients were called for follow up after 12 weeks and data was collected of the number of hot flushes average per day and efficacy.

Results: The mean age of women in group A was 52.82 ± 6.08 years and in group B was 52.09 ± 6.90 years. The mean hot flushes/day in group A was 2.56 ± 1.19 and in group B was 2.85 ± 1.25. There was 50% post-treatment reduction in hot flushes as compare to number of hot flushes average per day at pre treatment in 57 (93.44%) patients in Group A (Estrogen) while in Group B (Soy), it was seen in 46 (75.41%) patients with p-value of 0.006.

Correlation between Bone Turnover Markers and Bisphosphonates Treatment in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

Adnan Khan, Muhammad Hanif, Akhtar Ahmed, Salman Habib and Shahid Kamal

Karachi Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine (KIRAN)


Objective: To find out the significance of bone turnover markers in management of osteoporotic patients and correlation to bisphosphonate treatments.

Design: Comparative, prospective, managerial

Setting: Karachi Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine (KIRAN), Karachi.

Material and Methods: A total of 180 post-menopausal women were selected for the study by taking the verbal consent. Test patients were divided into five groups of 30 patients each on the basis of medicines they receive. Bisphosphonates (alendronates and risedronates) were prescribed to the patients under different brand names as fosamax, drate, osto, dronate and actonel. Serum osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase and c-telopeptidase were selected as bone turnover markers and were assessed quarterly to find out the correlation between these markers and different treatment groups.

Results: The selected bone turnover markers i.e, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin & c-telopeptide were found to drop continuously at different rates in all patients undergoing treatment while in controls these markers remained same with no significant changes throughout the year. The maximum fraction drop was found in telopeptide levels and minimum drop in alkaline phosphatase, while osteocalcin levels were lying in between.

Comparison of Routine and Concentration Techniques on Microscopic Examination of Stool for Parasitic Ova & Cysts

Muhammad Wajahat*, Maryum Sharif** and Hajra Farooq**

*Department of Pathology, Rawalpindi Medical College, Rawalpindi

**Department of Pathology, Azad Jammu & Kashmir Medical College, Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir


Objective: To compare the routine and concentration techniques on microscopic examination of stool for parasitic ova and cysts to emphasize importance of concentration technique

Methods: A descriptive study of 100 symptomatic and asymptomatic patients who attended the Microbiology Lab, Pathology Department, Family Hospital, Rawalpindi a teaching hospital affiliated with Rawalpindi Medical College were studied for six months for stool examination. Three samples from each case at three different days were selected not necessarily consecutive. Three techniques were applied on all samples which included direct microscopic examination by using saline and iodine preparations and the microscopic examination after using two concentration techniques which included simple salt flotation technique and Formal-ether concentration technique.

Results: In routine technique 4% of patients were positive for ova/cysts. In saturated saline floatation technique 8% of patients were positive for ova/cysts of parasites. In formal ether sedimentation technique also 8%of patients were positive.