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About admin

Professor, Consultant Pathologist, American Board Certified Pathologist, Fellow College of American Pathologists. Areas of interest Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology, Cytology, Cancer, Ethics, Islam, Humanity

Editorial: Storage of Information on Neuronal DNA; a Novel Logical Notion

Anwar Ul Haque

Diplomat American Board of Pathology, Fellow College of American Pathologists

Department of Pathology, Northwest School of Medicine, Hayatabad, Peshawar, Pakistan

Man (Both man and woman) is the crown of God’s creature. He has been given man the ability to acquire, retain and reproduce immense knowledge as has been well described in the final ever fresh and ever preserved divine book Quran.1 This capability was demonstrated in front of the angels and then angels were ordered to prostrate in front of Adam. All angels did but the Satan who was although not an angel but used to spend time among them refused to do so. He was arrogant and asked permission from the God to allow him to make man go astray. The permission was granted as the God had given enough intellect and wisdom to man to stay away from being slave of the Satan.1 Where that information of all things was stored in Adam’s brain, is still a big question. An although we do have all that information, but we can’t reproduce that, and we have to re-search that knowledge.

The question is still very valid where our brain stores all the knowledge and how our brain converts that knowledge into thoughts, ideas, speech and writing. Then of course neurons generate that knowledge and thoughts through chemical mediators and electrical impulses which are carried to various other neurons through axons via synapses. Almost all the work so far carried out is focused on the synapses and their plasticity. Short term and long-term memory are said to be dependent on this plasticity i.e. weakening or strengthening through repeated impulses or lack of impulses. Sleep seems to play very important role in coordination between hippocampus and cortex. 2,3

Research Guide: Essentials of Good Research

From this issue onward, we will present pertinent features of good research. The best and the most productive era of the fundamental research took its roots in the days of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ . That big bang of the Science occurred because of the final and eternal divine book Quran. As Muhammad ﷺ left this world, we witness mushrooming of Great Scientists in almost all fields of life. While Muslim society was glittering with light of education and research, the other part of the world was living in dark ages. Many things which we take as granted today would not be here if that era didn’t occur. For example, we will not be having Arabic number i.e. from Zero to infinite. And then forget all phone numbers, computers etc. and even page numbers. Can you imagine that? Computers would not be here not only because of lack of numbers but also simply there would be no plastic due to absence of sulfuric acid. Not only that lack of algorithm would have made it impossible. There would not be cheap paper. No watches and no cameras, no eyeglasses. There are literally zillions of things we can pin down here but that is not the objective of this article.

Editorial: Corona Virus: Myths and Epidemiological Considerations

Corona viral infection, Covid-19 is undoubtedly one of the mega events of this century. We don’t know what else lies ahead in this century. Who knew in the beginning of 2020 that we were heading towards this sudden catastrophe that will take away so many lives! Covid-19 is a member of the corona family of Zoonotic viruses which are highly contagious. In the recent past they were first highlighted in Saudi Arabia in 2012 where these viruses were transmitted from camel to man resulting in serious pulmonary disease known as ‘Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)’. It has since then spread to several other countries, including the United States. Most people infected with MERS-CoV developed severe respiratory illness, fever, cough, and shortness of breath; many died

Comparison of Honey with Alcohol as a Fixative in Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology

Ruqqayya Ishaq, Henna Azmat, Maria Omair, Ahmareen Khalid Sheikh & Ashok Kumar Tanwani

Department of Pathology, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan


Abstract: Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is a useful diagnostic aid in benign and malignant lesions. The diagnostic accuracy of FNAC depends on the sampling technique, fixative used, quality of staining and of course the meticulosity of interpretation by the pathologist. The widely used fixative in this procedure is 95 % Alcohol which although readily available, has a number of limitations for use. It is expensive and hence subject to pilferage. Also, it is a volatile liquid with an irritant smell and is said to be carcinogenic. Recent attempts have been made to prove that honey is also a comparable fixative for cytological specimens. It is a natural organic product, odourless and not known to cause any disease. Secondly it is relatively cheaper and not prone to be mishandled, making it an efficient contender for use as a fixative. In this study, we analyzed and compared the efficacy of cytological smears fixed in 95% alcohol and 20% honey solution. The results of our study showed no statistical significant difference in the fixative properties of honey and alcohol. Our results, therefore, confirmed that honey can safely be used as an alternate to alcohol in cytology specimens

Megaloblastic Anemia in Early Infancy (A Case Report)

Dr. Sara Jamal, Dr. Amna Imtiaz and Dr.Lubna Naseem

Abstract: Congenital megaloblastic anemia is a rare hematological condition of early infancy.So far few cases of congenital megaloblastic anemia have been reported. Infants born to severely B12 deficient mothers develop megaloblastic anemia at 3 to 6 months of age since they are born with low stores of B12 and are then fed breast milk of low cobalamin content. Mothers of such infants are either vegetarians or have unrecognized maternal pernicious anemia. Megaloblastic anemia developing within few weeks of birth is due to congenital transcobalamin II deficiency or abnormality. Transcobalamin II is responsible for the transport of cobalamin from gut to body tissues. Megaloblastic Anemia can also occur due to functional defect in either mitochondrial methyl malonyl COA enzyme or its co-factor ado cobalamin

Peripheral Ameloblastoma of the Gingiva

Ghazal Zaffar* and Ahmareen Khalid*

Department of Pathology, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad


Abstract: Peripheral Ameloblastoma is a benign and rare odentogenic tumor with a slow growing clinical course. It is an asymptomatic lesion and grows as a swelling. We report a case of Peripheral ameloblastoma in the gingiva within the oral cavity which was removed and on histopathological evaluation revealed predominantly plexiform architectural pattern formed by epithelial cells with characteristic reverse polarity.

Keywords: Peripheral Ameloblastoma, Gingiva

Adult Burkitt Lymphoma: An Unusual Presentation

Shahzad Ali Jiskani, Asfa Zawar and Lubna Naseem

Department of Pathology, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad

Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University, Islamabad


Abstract: Burkitt lymphoma is a disease of young population; especially children. It rarely occurs and presented in elderly group. World Heal Organization (WHO) divided Burkitt lymphoma in endemic, sporadic and immunodeficiency – associated. The non – endemic variant occur in children with abdominal involvement. We report a sporadic case presented at the age of 61 years old male with irregular thickening or parietal peritoneum and omentum without involving any lymph nodes


March 21, 2017

Anwar Ul Haque

Azad Jammu & Kashmir Medical College, Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir

Quackery is an unscientific, unproven and un-established method of treatment and patient management. It may or may not have ulterior motives! If there are ulterior motives then it also constitutes a fraud! Apart from money loss, quackery may have serious health consequences including delay in institution of appropriate optimal patient management allowing relentless progress of disease, transforming a potentially curable ailment into an incurable one and complications attributable to effects of quack medicine and at times even sudden death! It’s not uncommon to see people losing their precious kidneys and dying due to some “Hakeemi”, homeopathic prescriptions and excessive use of pain killers. In one incidence lead was found in the powder given by a hakeem to a patient.